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In a study involving 91 children aged 2 to 6, researchers found that daily consumption of the probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis DE111 positively modulated the gut microbiome profile without changing the overall microbiome equilibrium. After 8 weeks of daily probiotic consumption at 1 billion CFU, the researchers observed an increase in alpha-diversity at the phylum level, suggesting an expanded functional diversity of the microbiome compared to that of the children in the placebo group. Specifically, there were 9 differentially abundant taxa at the genus level found in the probiotic group, six (of the phylum bacteroidetes) grew in abundance while three (of the phylum firmicutes) were reduced. The six taxa of bacteroidetes that flourished are involved in immune regulation and reduction of inflammation. This modulation of the firmicutes/bacteroidetes ratio of the microbiome in children taking B. subtilis DE111 is a positive indication for healthy gut function.